Make your life easier and your code faster with the suite of “tidyverse” packages, including ggplot, tidyr, and dplyr.

#### Learning objectives

1. Manipulate data with group_by and summarize to extract information from datasets
2. Combine multiple commands with piping functionality
3. Create publication-quality data visualizations with ggplot

## Data science: more fun, less pain

R is a powerful language for managing, analyzing, and visualizing complex data. However, some of the commands in R are esoteric or just plain confusing. The tidyverse package for R includes several helpful functions that make it easier to manipulate, summarize, and visualize your data. In this lesson we’ll use these functions to create plots from summary statistics.

## Getting started

We are using the tidyverse package, which itself is really just a collection of six different packages. However, we can install them all with one command:

install.packages("tidyverse")

Our ultimate goal is to use the pre-loaded iris data to create a plot of the data stored in that data frame. The iris data are from early statistical work of R.A. Fisher, who used three species of Iris flowers to develop linear discriminant analysis.

We want to make a chart that looks like this: We want to keep all of our work stored in an R script, so we open a new script and start with an explanation of what we are going to do:

# Plot iris trait measurements
# Jeffrey C. Oliver
# jcoliver@email.arizona.edu
# 2018-05-17

## Summarizing the data

So what will we need? Break this down into the component parts.

• Means
• Standard errors
• For each species
• For each trait

### The hard way

Let’s start with getting the means for a single column, Sepal.Length. If we do this in base R, we need to pull out the values for each species, then calculate the means for each. This looks something like this:

setosa.mean <- mean(iris$Sepal.Length[iris$Species == "setosa"])
versicolor.mean <- mean(iris$Sepal.Length[iris$Species == "versicolor"])
virginica.mean <- mean(iris$Sepal.Length[iris$Species == "virginica"])

Which is a little cumbersome, especially if we also need to do the additional step of putting all these means into a single data frame.

### There’s a better way

A pair of commands can make this much easier: group_by and summarize. The first, group_by imposes structure on our data; for our immediate purposes, we will use it to group the data by the Species column:

# Load the tidyverse packages
library("tidyverse")

# Group the iris data by values in the Species column
iris.grouped <- group_by(iris, Species)

If we look at the first few rows of these data,

## # A tibble: 6 x 5
## # Groups:   Species 
##   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
##          <dbl>       <dbl>        <dbl>       <dbl> <fct>
## 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2 setosa
## 2          4.9         3            1.4         0.2 setosa
## 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2 setosa
## 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2 setosa
## 5          5           3.6          1.4         0.2 setosa
## 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4 setosa

it looks similar to the iris data we started with, but now, instead of a data.frame, this is actually a tibble. We don’t need to worry much about that now, only to notice that Species is listed as a group and that below the column names is an indication of the data types (there are only numbers <dbl> and factors <fct>).

The second function we want to use is summarize, which does exactly that: it provides some summary of the data we pass to it. Let’s get the mean value of sepal length for each species:

iris.means <- summarise(iris.grouped, SL.mean = mean(Sepal.Length))
iris.means
## # A tibble: 3 x 2
##   Species    SL.mean
##   <fct>        <dbl>
## 1 setosa        5.01
## 2 versicolor    5.94
## 3 virginica     6.59

Note that we did not have to tell summarize to calculate the mean for each species separately. As part of the tidyverse package, summarize knows how to deal with grouped data.

These two functions made it easier, after all we went from this:

# Calcuate the mean for each species
setosa.mean <- mean(iris$Sepal.Length[iris$Species == "setosa"])
versicolor.mean <- mean(iris$Sepal.Length[iris$Species == "versicolor"])
virginica.mean <- mean(iris$Sepal.Length[iris$Species == "virginica"])

# Add these back into a data.frame
iris.means <- data.frame(Species = c("setosa", "versicolor", "virginica"),
SL.mean = c(setosa.mean, versicolor.mean, virginica.mean))

To this:

iris.grouped <- group_by(iris, Species)
iris.means <- summarise(iris.grouped, SL.mean = mean(Sepal.Length))

But there is another operator that can make our life even easier. If you are familiar with the bash shell, you might be familiar with the pipe character, |, which is used to re-direct output. A similar operator in R is %>% and is used to send whatever is on the left-side of the operator to the first argument of the function on the right-side of the operator. So, these two statements are effectively the same:

# This:
iris %>% group_by(Species)
# is the same as:
group_by(iris, Species)

But here comes the really cool part! We can chain these pipes together in a string of commands, sending the output of one command directly to the next. So instead of the two-step process we used to first group the data by species, then calculate the means, we can do it all at once with pipes:

iris.means <- iris %>%
group_by(Species) %>%
summarize(SL.mean = mean(Sepal.Length))

Let’s break apart what we just did, line by line:

• iris.means <- iris %>% We did two things here. First, we instructed R to assign the final output to the variable iris.means and we sent the iris data to whatever command is coming on the next line.
• group_by(Species) This line is effectively the same as group_by(.data = iris, Species), because we sent iris data to group_by through the pipe, %>%. We then sent this grouped data to the next line.
• summarize(SL.mean = mean(Sepal.Length)) This used the grouped data from the preceding group_by command to calculate the mean values of sepal length for each species.
• The final output of summarize was then assigned to the variable iris.means.

Remember our plot: Where are we with our necessary components?

• Means
• Standard errors
• For each species
• For each trait

Well, we have the means for each species, but we don’t have the standard errors and we only have data for one trait (sepal length). Let’s start by calculating the standard error. Remember the formula for the standard error is the standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size:

$SE = \frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}$ Base R has the function sd which calculates the standard deviation, but we need another function from tidyverse, n, which counts the number of observations in the current group. So to caluclate the standard error, we can use sd(Sepal.Length)/sqrt(n()). But where? It turns out that summarize is not restricted to a single calculation. That is, we can summarize data in multiple ways with a single call to summarize. We can update our previous code to include a column for standard errors in our output:

iris.means <- iris %>%
group_by(Species) %>%
summarize(SL.mean = mean(Sepal.Length),
SL.se = sd(Sepal.Length)/sqrt(n()))
iris.means
## # A tibble: 3 x 3
##   Species    SL.mean  SL.se
##   <fct>        <dbl>  <dbl>
## 1 setosa        5.01 0.0498
## 2 versicolor    5.94 0.0730
## 3 virginica     6.59 0.0899

## Visualize!

At this point, we should go ahead and start trying to plot our data. Another part of the tidyverse package is ggplot2, a great package for making high-quality visualizations. ggplot2 uses special syntax for making graphs. We start by telling R what we want to plot in the graph:

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = SL.mean)) But our graph is empty! This is because we did not tell R how to plot the data. That is, do we want a bar chart? A scatterplot? Maybe a heatmap? We are going to plot the means as points, so we use geom_point(). Note also the specialized syntax where we add components to our plot with the plus sign, “+”:

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = SL.mean)) +
geom_point() Great! So now we also need to add those error bars. We’ll use another component, geom_errorbar to do this.

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = SL.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = SL.mean - SL.se,
ymax = SL.mean + SL.se)) Note that for the error bars, the calculations for the positions of the bars (1 standard error above and below the mean) are actually performed inside the ggplot command.

Those error bars are a little outrageous, so let’s make them narrower:

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = SL.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = SL.mean - SL.se,
ymax = SL.mean + SL.se),
width = 0.3) Our plot looks good for now. Let’s move on to getting all our traits in a single graph.

## The long way

The iris data are organized like this:

##   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
## 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
## 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
## 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
## 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
## 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
## 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa

But in order to capitalize on ggplot functionality, we need to reorganize the data so each row only has data for a single trait, like this:

## # A tibble: 6 x 3
##   Species trait        measurement
##   <fct>   <chr>              <dbl>
## 1 setosa  Sepal.Length         5.1
## 2 setosa  Sepal.Width          3.5
## 3 setosa  Petal.Length         1.4
## 4 setosa  Petal.Width          0.2
## 5 setosa  Sepal.Length         4.9
## 6 setosa  Sepal.Width          3

This is known as “long” format, where each row only has a single trait observation. To make this data conversion, we use the the pivot_longer function:

iris.long <- pivot_longer(data = iris,
cols = -Species,
names_to = "trait",
values_to = "measurement")

The arguments we pass to pivot_longer are:

• data = iris this indicates iris is the data frame we want to transform
• cols = -Species tells pivot_longer not to treat the value in the Species column as a separate variable
• names_to = "trait" “trait” is the column name for the variable names (e.g. “Sepal.Length”, “Sepal.Width”, etc.)
• values_to = "measurement" “measurement” is the column name for the actual values

Let’s take this pivot_longer functionality and combine it with the group_by and summarize commands we used previously. Recall our earlier code to generate species’ means and standard errors:

iris.means <- iris %>%
group_by(Species) %>%
summarize(SL.mean = mean(Sepal.Length),
SL.se = sd(Sepal.Length)/sqrt(n()))

We’ll want to update this, inserting the pivot_longer function and updating the values used for calculating the mean and standard deviation:

iris.means <- iris %>%
pivot_longer(cols = -Species,
names_to = "trait",
values_to = "measurement") %>%
group_by(Species, trait) %>%
summarize(trait.mean = mean(measurement),
trait.se = sd(measurement)/sqrt(n()))

Note the insertion of pivot_longer and the changes to group_by and summarize:

• group_by: We add an additional term, trait, to indicate to create another grouping, based on each trait
• summarize: We replace SL.mean with trait.mean and SL.se with trait.se

Our data frame now has a row for each species and each trait:

## # A tibble: 12 x 4
## # Groups:   Species 
##    Species    trait        trait.mean trait.se
##    <fct>      <chr>             <dbl>    <dbl>
##  1 setosa     Petal.Length      1.46    0.0246
##  2 setosa     Petal.Width       0.246   0.0149
##  3 setosa     Sepal.Length      5.01    0.0498
##  4 setosa     Sepal.Width       3.43    0.0536
##  5 versicolor Petal.Length      4.26    0.0665
##  6 versicolor Petal.Width       1.33    0.0280
##  7 versicolor Sepal.Length      5.94    0.0730
##  8 versicolor Sepal.Width       2.77    0.0444
##  9 virginica  Petal.Length      5.55    0.0780
## 10 virginica  Petal.Width       2.03    0.0388
## 11 virginica  Sepal.Length      6.59    0.0899
## 12 virginica  Sepal.Width       2.97    0.0456

Great! So now we need to use these summary statistics to create our plot. Recall the code we used to plot the sepal lengths:

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = SL.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = SL.mean - SL.se,
ymax = SL.mean + SL.se),
width = 0.3)

We need to update:

• The specification of what to plot on the y-axis in the ggplot function
• In ggplot command: change SL.mean to trait.mean
• The values for error bar boundaries
• In geom_errorbar command: replace SL.mean with trait.mean and SL.se with trait.se
ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = trait.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = trait.mean - trait.se,
ymax = trait.mean + trait.se),
width = 0.3) Something isn’t quite right. We actually want four separate charts, one for each of the traits. To do so, we need to tell R how to break apart the data into separate charts. We do this with the facet_wrap component of ggplot:

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = trait.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = trait.mean - trait.se,
ymax = trait.mean + trait.se),
width = 0.3) +
facet_wrap(~ trait) OK, there are a few more things we want to change:

1. The names of each subplot reflect the trait names, which were column names in the original data. Let’s update the values so the two words for each trait are separated by a period, not a space (e.g. “Petal.Width” becomes “Petal Width”).
2. We should make that Y-axis title a little nicer. We’ll use ylab for that.
3. All four charts are using the same y-axis scale; note all the petal width values are below 3, but the maximum value of the y-axis is 6. Since we won’t be doing comparisons on actual values between the charts, we can give each chart its own, independent y-axis scale. We’ll add this information to the facet_wrap command.
# Update trait names, replacing period with space
iris.means$trait <- gsub(pattern = ".", replacement = " ", x = iris.means$trait,
fixed = TRUE) # if fixed = FALSE, evaluates as regex

ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = trait.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = trait.mean - trait.se,
ymax = trait.mean + trait.se),
width = 0.3) +
ylab(label = "Trait mean values") + # update the y-axis title
facet_wrap(~ trait, scales = "free_y") # allow y-axis scale to vary With the use of tidyverse functions, we created a publication-quality graphic with just a few lines of code.

Our final script looks like:

# Plot iris trait measurements
# Jeffrey C. Oliver
# jcoliver@email.arizona.edu
# 2018-05-17

rm(list = ls())

library("tidyverse")

# Create data of summary statistics
iris.means <- iris %>%
pivot_longer(cols = -Species,
names_to = "trait",
values_to = "measurement") %>%
group_by(Species, trait) %>%
summarize(trait.mean = mean(measurement),
trait.se = sd(measurement)/sqrt(n()))

# Update trait names, replacing period with space
iris.means$trait <- gsub(pattern = ".", replacement = " ", x = iris.means$trait,
fixed = TRUE)

# Plot each trait separately
ggplot(data = iris.means, mapping = aes(x = Species, y = trait.mean)) +
geom_point() +
geom_errorbar(mapping = aes(ymin = trait.mean - trait.se,
ymax = trait.mean + trait.se),
width = 0.3) +
ylab(label = "Trait mean values") +
facet_wrap(~ trait, scales = "free_y")